Landis Marketplace - Main Street Pop-Up Store
631 E. Landis Avenue - Upper Level
Thursday - Friday - Saturday
(9am - 4pm)
2/05 -Get the Led Out Get Tickets Now!
4/02 -The Genesis Show Get Tickets Now!
4/16 - Old Tyme Variety Show - Will benefit the Boys & Girls Club of Vineland. For ticket information they can contact Frank Hartman at (856) 459-2185
As of 5/21/2014, The Landis Theater is available for rentals.
Please contact Sandy at 856-794-4100 for more information.
The Landis Theater, in Vineland, NJ, had its grand opening in March of 1937. Originally, an Art Deco style movie theater, the Landis Theater also showcased many Vaudeville acts including Abbott and Costello. In 1987, after many years serving the Vineland community, the Theater closed its doors.
The restoration of the Landis Theater is the cornerstone of a major redevelopment plan for Main Street Vineland. Through the efforts of Vineland's Redevelopment Plan, the Landis Theater has been returned to its original splendor.
The Landis Theater Performing Arts Center seats 750 patrons and includes an elevator to the luxurious mezzanine. An expanded stage and fly area can accommodate all types of performing arts productions. The back stage expansion provides support areas for the Theater including dressing rooms, bathrooms with showers, rehearsal space, theater support area, and a Green Room. Additionally, The Theater lobby can accommodate corporate and community events.
Dining venues include Mori's, where renowned local chef, Anthony Oliva, can serve up to 160 guests including an exciting outdoor dining area. Upstairs is an exquisite banquet hall which can accommodate up to 250 people. There is ample parking for the Theater, Banquet facility and restaurant within a one block radius.
The Landis Theater Performing Arts Center and Mori's serve as the perfect venue for local organizations to rent and host their special events. Local groups will find our Theater, restaurant and banquet facility the ideal place.
In addition, The Landis Theater Performing Arts Center will host its own season of events including professional entertainment, national touring artists, cultural and multi-cultural enrichment programs, dance, classical music, jazz, doo-wop, musicals, drama, local talent, productions by The Landis Theater Actors and much more.
This is the original press release from March 12, 1937, announcing the formal opening of the Landis Theater as a movie and vaudeville house.
Public Officals To Formally Open Landis Theater
First Performance At New Theater At East and Landis, Tonight
DOORS OPEN 6:30 P.M!
The Landis Theater, East and Landis avenues, will be formally opened tonight, at 7 o'clock.
A brief, inaugural program will be held prior to the first performance, in which public officals will participate. The ceremonies will also be attended by the heads of Vineland's many civic business and labor organizations.
The program as announced today will be as follows:
Singing of "The Star Spangled Banner," by the audience, led by C. Emerson Nash, superintendent of the Training School.
"Welcome" - brief address by Herbert Lubin, manager of the Landis Theater.
"Remarks" - by Mayor Samuel L. Gassel, speaking for the Borough of Vineland; John H. Weed, Chairman of the Landis Township Committee, representing Landis Township; and Representative Elmer H. Wene.
The speakers will be introduced by Sylvan D. Einstein, director of the Cumberland Holding Company, of Vineland, which built the theater and will operate it.
The doors of the theater will open at 6:30 P.M., when the sale of tickets for the first performance will begin.
All was in readiness this afternoon for the formal opening.
Constructed from the plans drawn by Williams H. Lees, reowned architect, of New York and Philadelphia, the Landis Theater represents the most advanced design in motion picture theater buildings. Provision has been made for future innovations in film projection and sound, including television, according to Lee.
The theater has a seating capacity of 1200. The chairs with red....covered backs and leather covered air cushion seats, are 121 inches wide and are set in semi-circle formation, with aisles of 32 inches: A silver stripe of stainless steel borders each chair. A cross-center aisle is six feet wide, permitting easy access to exits.
As one enters the theater, it is seen that the lobby or outer foyer is a combination of blue and white, arranged in circular design. Blue mirrors are framed in stainless steel, and the doors are of brown stained gumwood, highly granted.
The main foyer is fifteen feet in depth and extends the width of the theater building. At either end of the foyer are two large louvres, which serve doubly for illumination and as ducts in the air conditioning system. Flower boxes are to be placed at the bottom of the louvres. The walls are paneled in grained gumwood, and the ceilings are painted in deep aquamarine. Lounges, modernly equipped are at either end of the main foyer.
Two "Powder Rooms"
At either end of the main foyer are rest rooms for men and women. The womens rooms include "powder rooms," completely equipped with modern fixtures and furnishings. The walls and complements of the "powder rooms" are finished in bird's eye maple. A telephone booth is also to be found in the main foyer.
The standing space directly in the rear of the auditorium proper is ten feet in depth and extends the width of the theater. The carpeting of both the interior foyer is of red and gray, in a modern whirligig design. A windbreak glass will be installed at the rear of the seats. The three foyers will "stand" nearly as many persons as can be seated in the auditorium.
The design of the auditorium is new to this section of South Jersey. The ceiling has six levels, which serve to break the velocity of sound and to permit the elimination of echoes without padding the side or rear walls. The sounds travels along about sixty feet until it is absorbed in a special acoustic material, set in white blocks in the ceiling immediately in front of the mezzanine level. Each of the "breaks" in the ceiling are designed in wide, graceful curves, and are finished in bronze. The ceiling is light peach.
The air conditioning vents are placed along the ceiling levels, and appear as portholes in a ship. In the ceiling proper, the air conditioning vents are screened by a silver finish grillwork.
Aid For Deaf
Western Electric "Mirrophonic" sound equipment has been installed in the big projection booth. An innovation here is a block of seats equipped with Western Electric earphones, attached to the chairs, for those who are hard of hearing. The attachments must be secured by applying at the box office, and are limited in number.
The side walls are a combination of raspberry striped with wide bands of aquamarine and bronze, and finished in "Duali," an importation of veneer from Hawaii. Rainbow illumination is obtained from a battery of glass shielded lights lined in the mezzanine level on either side of the projection booth. Four exquisitely beautiful soft glow lights, mode of glass bars manufactured at the Kimball Glass Company, are to be seen at the rear of the auditorium. Colored lights flood the two striped pillars that form each side of the proscenium arch, and footlights and suspended stage lights complete the illumination system all controlled from the projection booth to give any effect desired by the operator.
The proscenium arch is 24 feet above the stage floor. The curtain is of rust colored plush, matching the finish of the "Sounding board."
The theater building is 165 feet deep and 75 feet wide. The marquee is 37 feet wide and extends 20 feet over the sidewalk. The vertical sign is 26 feet high. There are about 800 bulbs used in the outdoor illumination and nearly a mile of neon tubing. The color motive of the sign and marquee is red and blue.
Construction of the theater was begun last November, and an average of 75 men daily were employed. The opening attraction is "Hats Off," starring Mae Clarke.
Board of Directors
Lori DiMatteo-Fiocchi, President Emeritus
Lori DiMatteo-Fiocchi is a life long resident of Vineland, New Jersey, graduating from Vineland High School, attending Emerson College for Performing Arts, and graduating from Rowan University with a degree in Business Administration/Human Resources. She also holds a certification in Interior Design and is the proprietor of LA Designs, designing for both commercial and residential projects.
Lori/LA Designs was recognized by NJ DEP, Historic Preservation Office and the NJ Historic Sites Council for her work to preserve the Landis Theater, receiving The Historic Preservation Award in May 2011.
She is a former member of The Little Theater of Vineland and The League of Historic American Theatres (LHAT) and a current member of ASID. She served on the Décor Committee for the Landis Marketplace, part of the revitalization project in the Mainstreet District of Vineland, which held its Grand Opening in June 2011.
Lori currently works with her fiancé, Hans Lampart, in the management of Brookfield Construction and Eastern Pacific Development, building senior housing. They are responsible for the restoration and reconstruction of The Landis Theater.
As the proprietor of LA Designs she was the decorator for Mori's Restaurant and Banquet Room as well as other projects, including five Senior Apartment buildings and a Family Housing Community. Lori worked with her family at Mainline Flooring for many years. Prior to raising her children she was the Director of Human Resources at The American Institute for Mental Studies (AIMS) in Vineland.
Lori was the founder of the inaugural Board of Directors of The Landis Theater Foundation for which she served as President and was responsible for the creation of the Landis Theater Jr Actors program which included stage shows, workshops and summer camps.
Ms. DiMatteo-Fiocchi holds a seat on the Cumberland County Tourism Council and is currently performing in a new play at the Ashley McCormick Center in Bridgeton as a part of The New Works Initiative subscription series. She is an involved parishioner of her Church where she has been a member of the Choir, the Liturgy Committee and the Director of Arts and Environment. She is honored to be President Emerita of The Board of Directors of The Landis Theater Foundation.
She has two sons, Sam, Jr. and Nicholas, and a grandson, Sammy, III.
Michael Testa, Sr. - President
Michael L. Testa, the senior partner of Testa Heck Scrocca & Testa, P.A., is a graduate of the Villanova University School of Law and was admitted to the New Jersey Bar in 1975. Mr. Testa is certified by the New Jersey Supreme Court as a Civil and Criminal Trial Attorney, and has been certified in Civil Trial Advocacy and by the National Board of Trial Advocacy. He is also admitted to practice before the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, and the Supreme Court of the United States.
Mr. Testa is author of numerous published articles and is a frequent lecturer on trial practice. He served as the President of ATLA New Jersey from 1995-1996. Mr. Testa's professional associations include the New Jersey State Bar Association, the Cumberland County Bar Association, the American Arbitration Association, the Association of Trial Lawyers, and the Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers of New Jersey.
He resides in Buena with his wife Ellen.
Edgar G. Galloway III (Gary)
Edgar G. Galloway III (Gary) - Vice President
Gary Galloway is the President of Rental Country Inc. since 1981. In 1993 the Small Business Award was awarded to Rental Country by the Greater Vineland Chamber of Commerce. Prior to that, he was employed by Wainwright Funeral Home as a licensed funeral director.
He formerly served as president of the Vineland Jaycees, Kiwanis Club, Vineland Service Clubs Council, and the American Red Cross-Vineland Chapter. In addition, he served as President and Campaign Chairman of the Greater Vineland United Way. He is a past recipient of The Outstanding Young Man Award presented by the Vineland Jaycees. Gary is a past member of the CEO Group.
In June 2005 he was appointed President of The Greater Vineland Chamber of Commerce where he has been a member since 1999. He has been a member of the Vineland Industrial Commission since 1988, serving as Chairman from 1991 to present. Gary is the current Chairman of the Board of Directors of VDID/Main Street Vineland, serving as Vice Chairman in 2008. In 2007, Gary was appointed to the Board of Directors of the Cumberland Cape Atlantic YMCA and to the SJH Community Relations Advisory Board. Gary was honored by the Hendricks House with the 2006 Distinguished Service Award. On October 28, 2008, Gary received the prestigious Rotary Vocational Service Award and was recognized as a Rotary International Paul Harris Fellow. On February 20, 2009, Gary was honored by The Grapevine Newspaper as a Vineland Hometown Hero for his outstanding community service. In August of 2009, he was asked to serve on the Landis Theater Foundation Board of Directors.
Gary graduated from American Academy-McCallister Institute of Funeral Service and holds an Associate in Science Degree from Temple University. He completed the Cumberland County Leadership course in 2003.
Gary is a lifelong resident of Vineland where he resides with his wife, Betty. They have three children and 4 grandchildren.
Louise Bertacchi - Secretary
Louise T. Bertacchi is a former business owner and dedicated community leader. She has thirty years of experience in civic, school-based and charitable activities.
She has given many hours of time, dedication and monetary resources to many Boards and committees such as The Cumberland Cape Atlantic YMCA, Wheaton Arts, 4-H, American Heart Association, NJ State Federation of Women's Clubs, Woman's Club of Vineland, The Millville Woman's Club, The Cumberland County College Foundation Board, Rotary Club, Citizens United, Tiny Tim, MADD, The Vineland Historical & Antiquarian Society, The Vineland Downtown Improvement District, The Millville Chamber of Commerce, The Vineland Chamber of Commerce, and the United Way. She has also chaired numerous committees.
She is the founder and president of The Cumberland County Women's Hall of Fame. She founded this organization because she understood the need to recognize women who make a difference in Cumberland County.
Louise resides in Vineland with her husband, Larry and has two daughters, one son and one grandson.
Ron Rossi is a lifelong Vineland resident. A graduate of Vineland High School, Ron went on to earn his bachelors degree in Industrial Engineering from New Jersey Institute of Technology. Mr. Rossi is the owner of Rossi Honda. He is a board member of several local organizations and businesses including the YMCA, Betty Bacharach Rehabilitation Hospital, Sacred Heart High School, the CEO Group, the Vineland Chamber of Commerce and the Exchange Club. Ron and his wife Bonnie reside in Vineland and have three daughters and one granddaughter.
Dominick Baruffi II
Dominick Baruffi II
Dominick Baruffi is a lifelong area resident. He attended Buena Regional High School and Seton Hall University. He is CEO of Jersey Panel Corporation and Executive Vice President of Baruffi Bros. Incorporated. Mr. Baruffi is a member and past member of several local boards including South Jersey Healthcare, Sun National Bank, Cumberland Christian School and Living Faith Alliance Church.
Dominick is married to wife Donna and has three children, Dominick III, Dante and Daria.
Donna M. Baruffi
Donna M. Baruffi
Donna Baruffi has been an area resident for twenty-five years. She graduated from Oakcrest High School and the Taylor Business Institute. Donna works as a Travel Consultant with SoJern Travel. She is a member of South Jersey Healthcare Auxiliary Board of Directors and Living Faith Alliance Church where she currently serves on the worship team.
Donna is married to Dominick and has three children, Dominick III, Dante and Daria.
Todd W. Heck
Todd W. Heck
Todd Heck has been a partner at Testa Heck Scrocca & Testa Attorneys at Law since 1996. He has a broad-based commercial and estate law practice, with an emphasis on business dispute resolution and transaction planning. He earned a post-graduate law degree, a Masters in Taxation, from New York University in 1983. His primary law degree was earned at the Villanova University School of Law in 1979. He is also a graduate of Lehigh University (B.S. in Management with high honors, 1976).
Todd is admitted to practice law in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, and is active in the Cumberland County and New Jersey State Bar Associations (including six years of service on the County Judicial and Prosecutorial Appointments Committee). Locally he has served as the solicitor for the Cumberland County Improvement Authority and the Maurice River Township Zoning Board.
Todd is active in local charitable and civic affairs, having received distinguished service recognition from the Cumberland County Board of Chosen Freeholders and the U.S. Congress. He and his wife Maureen reside in historic Mauricetown, New Jersey.
Dr. Keith Figgs
Dr. Keith Figgs
Dr. Keith Figgs was born in Brooklyn, New York and relocated to Vineland in 1963. He is a graduate of Sacred Heart High School and received his Bachelor's Degree and Master's Degree in Elementary Education from Trenton State College (The College of New Jersey). He received his Doctor of Education Degree in Educational Administration from Teachers College, Columbia University.
Keith's career in Vineland began as a classroom teacher including two years as a teacher of the gifted and talented. He served as principal of the Winslow Elementary School and the Butler Avenue Kindergarten Center. He has worked as the Director of various district summer programs and as the evening supervisor of the Vineland Adult Education Center. Keith was employed by the Salem City School District where he was an assistant principal of the Fenwick Elementary School, director of Adult and Community Education and principal of the Salem Adult High School. Dr. Figgs served as the Assistant Superintendent for Administration for the Vineland School District for 16 years, until his retirement in 2009.
He is a member of many professional organizations and is the past president of the Cumberland County Association of School Administrators and the Rowan University Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa. Keith is a former member of the Alumni Council for Teachers College, Columbia University. In 2010, he was awarded the Alumni Citation Award from the College of New Jersey.
Dr. Figgs is the past Chairman of the Board of Trustees for Community Treatment Solutions, which provides psychological services for children and adolescents. He is currently vice-chairman of the Board of Trustees for Cumberland County College. Keith is currently working for the New Jersey Department of Education as a Network Turnaround Officer for the Wiggins and the Cramer College Preparatory Lab Schools in Camden.
Robert Odorizzi - Treasurer
Born in Cherry Hill, New Jersey Robert has deep family roots in the Vineland area where both his parents and grandparents lived and worked. His commitment to the community has resulted in his being an active member in numerous community organizations, which include Bishop McCarthy Residence Auxiliary where he serves as Chairman. The Sicilian American Club where he serves as a member of the board of directors and Treasurer. He is the Vice Chair of the South Jersey Healthcare Auxiliary which supports fundraising efforts of the Regional Medical Center. Robert is also a founding member of the Italian Cultural Foundation of South Jersey where he serves as Treasurer as well as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Dream Foundation, a local Foundation that assists families with children facing catastrophic illnesses.
Robert is the owner of and partner in various businesses in the Vineland area. Following graduation from Vineland High School Robert attended Stockton State College where he majored in Business Administration. He is past President and member of the Sacred Heart Parish Council and has served as past Treasurer of the City of Vineland for two consecutive terms.
Caleb Soto is President and Founder of DeSoto Jewelers, established in 1987. He is a diamond setter and jeweler by trade with 32 years experience. He began his apprenticeship at the age of 17 in New York City's Diamond District.
Mr. Soto is one of the original 27 organizers of Capital Bank. He has served on the board of VDID for the past 6 years and most recently was a board member for South Jersey Healthcare Foundation.
Caleb actively supports various youth organizations, PALS, South Jersey Youth Alliance, The Royal Rangers, and the Vineland Little League. He was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York.
Steven Schimmel is the Executive Director of Jewish Federation of Cumberland, Gloucester & Salem Counties.
Mr. Schimmel has a B.A. in History and a B.A. in Political Science from Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York. He studied at the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Oxford University in Oxford, England. And, he is a graduate of Southern New Jersey Academy for the Performing Arts at GCIT, located in Sewell, New Jersey.
Steven has worked for International Creative Management in Los Angeles, and Eventive Marketing LLC in New York City. He is a longtime Vineland resident.
Patrick Finley was born in Philadelphia and raised in Vineland, the fourth of five children of Dr. Peter & Anne (Ryan) Finley. He is currently the Zoning Officer for the City of Vineland. Pat has resided in Vineland most of his life, making the intentional decision to return here to live and pursue a career. He attended Sacred Heart Grammar School and graduated from Vineland High School. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Management from Widener University, an A.A.S. degree in Marketing from Cumberland County College and attends Stockton College and Rutgers University for continuing education. Pat is a Commissioner on the Cumberland County Board of Taxation and a Realtor with Farina & Boeshe in Sea Isle City.
Patrick has been a volunteer firefighter with Vineland Fire Company #4 for 30 years and rose through the ranks to serve as Chief for ten years. He was President of the Main Avenue Volunteer Fire Company, the civic and social organization supporting the fire company's mission. He is an Instructor at the Cumberland County Firefighter Training Center. Pat helped establish Vineland's Lloyd Ronchetti Scholarship and the firefighter's LOSAP program.
Patrick chaired Vineland's Local Welfare Assistance Board, the Strategic Neighborhood Assistance Planning Council and the NPP/UCC Neighborhood Council. He served on the Vineland Zoning Board, Sacred Heart Parish Council and as a Director for Cumberland County Habitat for Humanity. He was a co-founder and Director of Cumberland Renaissance Housing Corporation, a non-profit development corporation.
Pat has received the Vineland Fire Department Firefighter of the Year Award, The Society of the Four Chaplains Legion of Merit Award, The Cumberland County Human Relations Commission Humanitarian Award, and the NAACP's Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. award for community service.
Patrick has a keen interest in theatre, music and art of many genres, enjoys exploring Irish history, culture and music; pursues adventure travel and exploration of cultures around the U.S.& the World and enjoys cooking, gardening, golf and spending good times with family & friends.
Diane Lee Fischer-Cristiano
Diane Lee Fischer-Cristiano
As founder and President of Dee Lee Promotions, Diane has been involved in every aspect of the boxing business. She's overseen everything from contract negotiations to bout sheets and, for about a year, she even carried an extra supply of spit buckets to every event. Like most promoters she's spent more time in gyms than some gym rats and she's on a first name basis with just about everyone connected with boxing up and down the East Coast.
Diane's boxing accomplishment 'firsts' are well documented; In 1998 she promoted the first fight card in New Jersey to feature 6 World Title bouts on one card... She was the first and only woman ever to be chosen New Jersey Promoter of the year by the Atlantic City Press...The first woman to ever promote an all woman fight card in the state of Louisiana... The first woman to ever promote a world title fight in the country of Panama... and The first promoter to ever promote a title fight in the state of Delaware. Has worked with many entertainers such as Joan Rivers, Rollin Stones, Dianne Carroll, etc.
During Dee Lee's promotional career she has had the sincere privilege of presenting New Jersey boxing fans with the pleasure of seeing some of the world's most talented fighters. Wladimir Klitschko, Ray Mercer, Tracy Patterson, Kathy Collins, Michael Stewart, Anthony Thompson, and Shamone Alvarez have all appeared on Dee Lee fight cards and she has shared in their joy and agony just like any true boxing fan.
Life is never boring for Diane Lee Fischer. The beautiful red headed dynamo people see on fight night is the same person that gets up every morning and lives life to the fullest everyday. That love of life and her pure undying love of boxing are just two of the very special gifts Dee Lee brings to New Jersey boxing.
Diane now a Landis Foundation board member has also served on the Board of trustee of Atlantic County Red Cross, Vineland home town hero and is President of Vineland boys and girls 2009-present.
Nancy Small Asselta
Nancy Small Asselta
Nancy Small Asselta, a 30 year Vineland resident, formerly of Northfield, has been a Professional Interior Designer and Space Planner for over 35 years, and is owner of SMALL ASSELTA INTERIOR DESIGN, L.L.C. of Vineland, established in 1991. As a NJ Certified and Licensed Interior Designer, Nancy designs corporate, commercial, medical, institutional and residential interiors throughout South Jersey and also in New York, Pennsylvania and Florida.
Nancy's professional design experience prior to opening her own firm includes many regional, state and national award winning designs. As Senior Project Designer and Design Director for Scotko Design Group Inc. and Compass Rose Design, Inc., she specialized in the completion of turn-key Sales Environments for the Home Building Industry throughout the United States. Among these which received awards were: 200 Riverside Boulevard for the Trump Organization, The Rittenhouse for Amerimar Realty, Doral Greens for The Doral Hotel Corporation, Friendswood Development for Exxon Corp., The Wanamaker House of Philadelphia and The Mansion at Main Street in Voorhees. Also as Senior Project Designer she designed hospitals, schools and retirement centers for MPIB Merlino Interior Design/Mirick, Pearson, Bachelor & Henry Architects of Philadelphia.
Nancy is a Professional Member of IIDA, Allied Member of ASID and an Associate Member of IDS. She holds an Associate of Arts Degree in Liberal Arts and Humanities from Atlantic Cape Community College where her studies included Music and Art and where she was actively involved in the Music and Theater Departments. She earned a Bachelor of Science Degree from The University of Tennessee in Knoxville, which offered one of few nationally accredited programs for Bachelor of Science Degrees in Interior Design at that time.
A former soloist with The Singing Ambassadors of Vineland, Nancy is also a past member of Art Goes to School of the Delaware Valley, an art appreciation program whose volunteer members visit school classrooms to lead discussions about art. Nancy has studied piano for eight years and dance for six years and has been a professional vocalist since 1974, performing as a soloist with well known pianists, bands, and orchestras throughout Atlantic, Cape May and Cumberland Counties. She has performed in various venues including casino productions and lounges, and in many hotels and restaurants.
Grace Evans Woodruff
Grace Evans Woodruff
Married to Alan Woodruff
Two sons: Mark and John
Graduated University of Delaware
Past President Bridgeton Hospital Auxillary
Chaired Hospital committee to merge the two Ladies’ Auxilliary Boards for the new S.Jersey Hospital.
Co-Chaired Bridgeton’s Anniversary Tricentiennial Ball
Volunteer for the “Hug-a-Bear” Foundation
Member of The Seven Oaks Club
Chaired Bridgeton Hospital’s Red Stockings Follies
1984-2004 The Brandywiners’ Productions at Longwood Gardens
The Academy of Dance, James Jamieson Director, Danced original choreography Brigadoon
Under James Jamieson, danced The Nutcracker for 25 years as guest performer
Member of Research Club
Studied Ballet at The Academy of the Dance in Wilmington, Delaware
Mrs. Woodruff received the Rotary Club’s Paul Harris Fellow Award for outstanding service to the community.
Mrs. Woodruff has taught in the upper Deerfield Schools and at the Deerfield Presbyterian Church.